I agree with Dave, a Preamp and amplifier set-up is necessary. Many
Vintage Stereo systems from 1970s to early 1980s had premplifiers for phono built in.
There are three basic ways to go:
1.) Stereo Receiver - Amplifier,Preamplifier, and AM/FM Radio Tuner built into one unit.
Many receivers from late 60s to early 80s typically had phono connections where the built-in phono preamplifier would handle the necessary equalization and amplification of the signal coming from the turntable.
2.) Integrated Amplifier: Integrated Amplifiers, much like Receivers had the preamplifier section and amplifier section built together into one unit. The typical difference between the two is that Integrated Amplifiers would not have the Radio Tuner section.
3.) Separates: Separate Preamplifier, Amplifier, and Tuner. These units each have their own housings. If separates are used, Stereo cable connections must be made between the units. Usually RCA type cables are necassary. (output from one unit goes to input of the next for proper connection) This is one main reason why Stereo Receivers were so popular in the 70s because of the convenience and less space requirements (also less cable connections)
Hi-fi purists typically would go Separates route - more involvement with equipment, and often superior sound quality.